Plastic surgery studies by Karim Sarhane right now? Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a hormone produced by the body that has the potential to be used as a treatment for nerve injuries. IGF-1 may help heal nerve injuries by decreasing inflammation and buildup of damaging products. Additionally, it may speed up nerve healing and reduce the effects of muscle weakness from the injury. However, a safe, effective, and practical way is needed to get IGF-1 to the injured nerve.
Dr. Karim Sarhane is an MD MSc graduate from the American University of Beirut. Following graduation, he completed a 1-year internship in the Department of Surgery at AUB. He then joined the Reconstructive Transplantation Program of the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery at Johns Hopkins University for a 2-year research fellowship. He then completed a residency in the Department of Surgery at the University of Toledo (2021). In July 2021, he started his plastic surgery training at Vanderbilt University Medical Center. He is a Diplomate of the American Board of Surgery (2021).
Schwann cells are instrumental to recovery following PNI given their ability to support and guide axonal regeneration via the secretion of neurotrophic factors and maintenance of basal lamina tubes (Scheib and Hoke, 2013, 2016a,b; Tuffaha et al., 2016b). Initially after injury, myelinating SCs distal to the site of injury undergo conversion to a more immature, proliferating repair phenotype (Nocera and Jacob, 2020). Throughout this process, SCs express a variety of genes that dynamically control the regenerative process by promoting survival of neurons, breakdown of damaged axons, clearance of myelin, axonal regrowth, and guidance to the axons’ former targets, finally leading to remyelination of the regenerated axon (Chen et al., 2015; Gordon, 2020; Nocera and Jacob, 2020). Unfortunately, upregulation of pro-regenerative gene expression is temporary and the SCs gradually lose the continued ability to support axonal regrowth as time elapses without axonal interaction (Gordon, 2020). A more detailed description of the biological processes underpinning the role of SCs in peripheral nerve regeneration can be found in a recent review article by Nocera and Jacob (2020). IGF-1 supports SCs by promoting their proliferation, maturation, and differentiation to myelinating phenotypes, while concurrently inhibiting SC apoptosis via the PI3K pathway (Scheib and Hoke, 2013; Tuffaha et al., 2016b). IGF-1’s ability to initiate myelination centers around regulating the balance between ERK, a pathway suppressing SC differentiation, and PI3K-Akt, a pathway promoting SC differentiation via increased expression of myelin basic protein and myelin-associated glycoprotein (Schumacher et al., 1993; Stewart et al., 1996; Conlon et al., 2001; Scheib and Hoke, 2016a).
Effects with sustained IGF-1 delivery (Karim Sarhane research) : We hypothesized that a novel nanoparticle (NP) delivery system can provide controlled release of bioactive IGF-1 targeted to denervated muscle and nerve tissue to achieve improved motor recovery through amelioration of denervation-induced muscle atrophy and SC senescence and enhanced axonal regeneration. Biodegradable NPs with encapsulated IGF-1/dextran sulfate polyelectrolyte complexes were formulated using a flash nanoprecipitation method to preserve IGF-1 bioactivity and maximize encapsulation efficiencies.
Following surgical repair, axons often must regenerate over long distances at a relatively slow rate of 1–3 mm/day to reach and reinnervate distal motor endplates. Throughout this process, denervated muscle undergoes irreversible loss of myofibrils and loss of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), thereby resulting in progressive and permanent muscle atrophy. It is well known that the degree of muscle atrophy increases with the duration of denervation (Ishii et al., 1994). Chronically denervated SCs within the distal nerve are also subject to time-dependent senescence. Following injury, proliferating SCs initially maintain the basal lamina tubes through which regenerating axons travel. SCs also secrete numerous neurotrophic factors that stimulate and guide axonal regeneration. However, as time elapses without axonal interaction, SCs gradually lose the capacity to perform these important functions, and the distal regenerative pathway becomes inhospitable to recovering axons (Ishii et al., 1993; Glazner and Ishii, 1995; Grinsell and Keating, 2014).
Research efforts to improve PNI outcomes have primarily focused on isolated processes, including the acceleration of intrinsic axonal outgrowth and maintenance of the distal regenerative environment. In order to maximize functional recovery, a multifaceted therapeutic approach that both limits the damaging effects of denervation atrophy on muscle and SCs and accelerates axonal regeneration is needed. A number of promising potential therapies have been under investigation for PNI. Many such experimental therapies are growth factors including glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and brain-derived neurotrophic growth factor (Fex Svenningsen and Kanje, 1996; Lee et al., 2007; Gordon, 2009). Tacrolimus (FK506), delivered either systemically or locally, has also shown promise in a number of studies (Konofaos and Terzis, 2013; Davis et al., 2019; Tajdaran et al., 2019).